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1.1 -1.4 The marketing mix

The marketing mix is arguably the most renowned marketing theory or all time (Eid 2002). The phrase “marketing mix” was coined by Borden (1964) in the early sixties after reading Culliton’s (1948) work in which he describes a business executive as a “mixer of ingredients” (Rafiq et al 1995). This formed a milestone in the development of marketing planning and the conversation of planning into practice.

When the phrase marketing mix was initially coined by Borden (1964) he suggested twelve fundamental principles that would make up the mix thus becoming the starting point of a marketing campaign, these were:

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2.0 Marketing today

Chaffey et al (2002) highlight the fact that marketing differs today from the past. A steady change has taken place over the last decade due to the increasing use of various digital media for the communication of marketing messages. McDonald et al (1999) state that today there is an electronic marketing mix which is made up of the Six I’s:

  1. Interactivity
  2. Intelligence
  3. Individualisation
  4. Integration
  5. Industry restructuring
  6. Independence of location

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