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3.0 The foundation theories

While the preceding timeline illustrates most of the groundbreaking theories and marketing milestones (Rafiq et al 1995) in the development of modern marketing theory the subsequent section illustrates how all the theories, fundamentally, are the built on the foundation of Borden’s (1964) twelve point framework and that, while many of these theories appear to be different, they all contain the basic principles as the twelve point framework:

The four P’s

It is universally accepted that the four P’s model was derived directly from Borden’s (1964) twelve point framework (Rafiq et al 1995). The four P’s successfully condensed the framework making a more memorable academic model which did not omit as much of the twelve point framework as many people assume due to the inclusion of the sub-mixes [which are not as well known outside of the marketing world] detailed in section 1.1. The price and promotion aspects of the four P’s are lifted directly from Borden’s (1964) framework and the product and place aspects are attempts to condense aspects of the twelve point framework using the sub-mixes. McCarthy (1964) included packaging and brand directly within the product sub-mix of the four P’s model, both of which were lifted directly from the twelve point framework.