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Appendix A

The Six I’s model (McDonald et al 1999)

1. Interactivity
Nearly all forms of digital media can facilitate interactivity whereas no traditional medium can facilitate what Lewis (1999) defines as “true interaction”. Today a successful campaign should incorporate at least some form of interactivity where possible, but, not just for the sake of it [note that being able to facilitate interactivity does not mean that it is always used in a constructive way – according to Marden (1997) 30% of all advertisements in the US damage the brand].

Interactivity is one of the most powerful tools available to markets when exploited correctly. While a user is involved with an advertisement [interacting with it] the promotion holds the user’s undivided attention, Chaffey et al (2000) refer to this as being “lean-forward” as opposed to traditional “lean-back”. According to Smith et al (1995) interaction gives more generic advertisements a personal feel and promotes a more positive response from people who “use the advert” as opposed to simply watching it. Traditional non-interactive commercials are too easily ignored.